Nagpur (नागपूर)

Location of Nagpur (नागपूर)
in Maharashtra and India

Nāgpur  is a city in the state of Maharashtra, and is the largest city in central India and also the third largest city by population in the state of Maharashtra. With a population of around 2,420,000; Nagpur UA is the 13th largest urban conglomeration in India[3], the 114th largest city [2] in world, and the 143rd largest urban area in world in terms of population.[4] The city is also the seat of annual winter session of Maharashtra Vidhan Sabha. Nagpur is also the major commercial and political center of the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, and is also famous throughout the country as “Orange City” for being a major trade center of oranges.[5] The city assumes political importance from being the headquarters for the Hindu nationalist organisation RSS and an important location for the Dalit Buddhist movement.

Nagpur lies precisely at the center of the country with the Zero mile marker (indicating the geographical center of India) located here.[6] The city was founded by Gond people but later became part of Maratha Empire under the Bhonsles. The British East India Company took over Nagpur in 19th century and made it the capital of Central Provinces and Berar. After first states’ reorganisation, the city lost the capital status but as per informal “Nagpur Pact” between political leaders; was made the second capital of Maharashtra.

History

Main article: History of Nagpur

Central Provinces and Berar, 1903. Princely states are shown in yellow.

Human existence around present day Nagpur city can be traced back 3000 years to 8th century BC. Mehir burial sites at Drugdhamna (near Mhada colony) indicate megalithic culture existed around Nagpur and is still followed in present times[8]. The first reference to the name Nagpur is found in a 10th century copper-plate inscription discovered at Devali in the neighbouring WardhaRastrakuta king Krsna III in the Saka year 862 (940 CE).[9] Towards the end of third century King Vindhyasakti is known to have ruled the Nagpur region. In the 4th century Vakataka Dynasty ruled over the Nagpur region and surrounding areas and had good relations with the Gupta Empire. The Vakataka king Prithvisena I moved his capital to Nagardhan (ancient name Nandivardhana), located at 28 kilometers (17 mi) from Nagpur.[10] district. The inscription is a record of grant of a village situated in the visaya (district) of Nagpura-Nandivardhana during time of

Recent history ascribes the founding of Nagpur to Bakht Buland, a prince of the Gond kingdom of Deogarh in the Chhindwara district. In 1743, the Maratha leader Raghoji Bhonsle of Vidarbha established himself at Nagpur, after conquering the territories of Deogarh, Chanda and Chhattisgarh by 1751. After Raghoji’s death in 1755, his son and successor Janoji was forced to acknowledge the effective supremacy of the Maratha Peshwa of Pune in 1769. Regardless of the military conquests, the Nagpur state continued to grow. Janoji’s successor Mudhoji I (d. 1788) came to power in 1785 and bought Mandla and the upper Narmada valley from the Peshwa between 1796 and 1798, after which Raghoji II (d. 1816) acquired Hoshangabad, the larger part of Saugor and Damoh. Under Raghoji II, Nagpur covered what is now the east of Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, and parts of Madhya Pradesh and Jharkhand.

In 1803 Raghoji II joined the Peshwas against the British in the Second Anglo-Maratha War. The British prevailed, and Raghoji was forced to cede Cuttack, Sambalpur, and a part of Berar. After Raghoji II’s death in 1816, his son Parsaji was deposed and murdered by Mudhoji II. Despite the fact that he had entered into a treaty with the British in the same year, Mudhoji joined the Peshwa in the Third Anglo-Maratha War in 1817 against the British, but was forced to cede the rest of Berar to the Nizam of Hyderabad, and parts of Saugor and Damoh, Mandla, Betul, Seoni and the Narmada valley to the British after suffering a defeat at Sitabuldi in modern-day Nagpur city. The Sitabuldi fort was the site of a fierce battle between the British and the Bhonsle of Nagpur in 1817. The battle was a turning point as it laid the foundations of the downfall of the Bhonsles and paved the way for the British acquisition of Nagpur city.[11] Mudhoji was deposed after a temporary restoration to the throne, after which the British placed Raghoji III the grandchild of Raghoji II, on the throne. During the rule of Raghoji III (which lasted till 1840), the region was administered by a British resident. In 1853, the British took control of Nagpur after Raghoji III died without leaving an heir.

Map of Nagpur district with major towns and rivers.

From 1853 to 1861, the Nagpur Province (which consisted of the present Nagpur region, Chhindwara, and Chhatisgarh) became part of the Central Provinces and Berar and came under the administration of a commissioner under the British central government, with Nagpur as its capital. Berar was added in 1903. Tata group started the country’s first textile mill at Nagpur[12], formally known as Central India Spinning and Weaving Company Ltd. The company was popularly known as “Empress Mills” as it was inaugurated on 1 January 1877, the day queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India. Political activity in Nagpur during India’s freedom struggle included hosting of two annual sessions of the Indian National Congress. Importantly, the Non-cooperation movement was launched in the Nagpur session of 1920. The city witnessed a Hindu–Muslim riot in 1923 which had profound impact on K. B. Hedgewar[13], who in 1925 founded the RSS, a Hindu nationalist organization in Nagpur with an idea of creating a Hindu nation. After the 1927 Nagpur riots RSS gained further popularity in Nagpur and the organization grew nationwide.

After Indian Independence in 1947, Central Provinces and Berar became a province of India, and in 1950 became the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, again with Nagpur as its capital. However when the Indian states were reorganized along linguistic lines in 1956, the Nagpur region and Berar were transferred to Bombay state, which in 1960 was split between the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. At a formal public ceremony on October 14, 1956 in Nagpur B. R. Ambedkar along with his supporters converted to Buddhism starting Dalit Buddhist movement which is still active. In 1994, the city witnessed its most violent day in modern times in form of Gowari stampede deaths.
Also see: Nagpur state

Geography

Nagpur lies on the Deccan plateau of the Indian Peninsula and has a mean altitude of 310 meters above sea level.[14] The underlying rock strata is covered with alluvial deposits resulting from the flood plain of the Kanhan River. In some places these give rise to granular sandy soil. However, in low lying areas which are poorly drained, the soil is alluvial clay with poor permeability characteristics. In eastern part of city crystalline metamorphic rocks such as gneiss, schist and granites are found, while in the Northern part yellowish sand stones and clays of the lower Gondwana formations are found. [15]

Nagpur city is dotted with many natural and man made lakes with Ambazari lake being the largest of all. Other natural lakes include Futala lake, Gorewada Lake and Telangkhedi lake. Sonegaon lake along with Gandhisagar lake are man-made lakes created by cities historical rulers. Nag river, Pilli nadi along with various nallas form the natural drainage pattern for city.[16] [17] Nagpur is known for its greenery, and was judged as the cleanest and second greenest in India after Bangalore.[18]

Climate

As it is located at centre of Indian peninsula far from Bay of Bengal and Arabian sea, Nagpur has a tropical wet and dry climate with dry conditions prevailing for most of the year . Nagpur city receives an annual rainfall of 1,205 mm (47.44 in) from monsoon rains during June to September.[19] The highest recorded rainfall was 304 mm on July 14, 1994.[20] Summers are extremely hot lasting from March to June, with maximum temperatures occurring in May. Winter lasts from November to January, during which temperatures can drop below 10°C (50°F).[14] The highest recorded temperature in the city was 48.6 °C (119.5 °F) on 26 May 1954[6], while the lowest was 3 °C.

Civic Administration

Vidhan Bhavan

Nagpur is administered by Nagpur Municipal Corporation (NMC) which is democratically elected civic governing body. Nagpur Improvement Trust(NIT) works along with NMC and carries out works like development of civic infrastructure and new urban areas on behalf of NMC.[21] The city is divided in 10 zones which are in turn divided into 136 wards.[22] Each ward is represented by a corporator, majority of whom are elected in local elections.

Sitabuldi fort is home to Indian Army’s 118th infantry battalion.

Nagpur is an important city for the scientific community as it is headquarters of number of national level scientific and governmental establishments like the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute NEERI, Central Institute of Cotton Research (CICR), National Research Centre for Citrus, National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, and the Jawaharlal Nehru National Aluminium Research and Development Centre.

Nagpur is also an important city for the Indian armed forces. The city is the headquarter of Maintenance command of Indian Air Force. The Indian Army’s Ordinance factory and staff college are located on west side of city. Nagpur’s suburb Kamptee has cantonment of Regimental center of Indian Army’s Brigade made up of National Cadet Corps’ Officers’ Training School, Institute of Military Law and other establishments. Nagpur’s National Civil defense College provides civil defense and disaster management training to pupils from all over India and abroad. Indian Air Force’s giant IL-76 transport planes nicknamed “Gajraj” are based in Nagpur.

Marathi, official language of Maharashtra is the local language in Nagpur. Varhadi dialect of Marathi is spoken in and around Nagpur city. Hindi is spoken extensively in Nagpur. Due to its central location Nagpur has become a cosmopolitan in nature with large number of residents from neighboring states of Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh. In 2001, the urban population was 2,129,500, and there were around 410,000 households in the city. 7,26,664 people lived in slumsNagpur second most slum populated city in Maharashtra after Mumbai[25]. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for around 25% of the population. The sex ratio was 936 females per 1000 males. Around 99.4% of the population was engaged in non-agricultural activities, attesting to the overwhelmingly urban character of Nagpur city.[26]. According to 2006 survey of National Crime Record Bureau Nagpur has the highest crime rate of 470.6 in Maharashtra as compared to other mega-cities of the state.[27] The number of migrants to Nagpur from outside Maharashtra during the 1991-2001 decade was 2.1 lakh making Nagpur 4th most favored destination in state.[28] making

People and Culture

The city contains a large number of people from other Indian states as well as people belonging to the world’s major faiths. Nagpur plays host to a variety of cultural events throughout the year. Cultural and literary societies in Nagpur include Vidarbha Sahitya Sangh(for development of Marathi), Vidarbha Rashtrabhasha Prachar Samiti (promotion and spreading Hindi) and Vidarbha Hindi Sahitya Sammelan (for promoting Hindi).

Marathi Sahitya Sammelan, the conference on Marathi Literature were held twice in Nagpur city. They were presided by President of the Conference Krushnaji Prabhkar Khadilkar in 1933 and Arun Sadhu in 2007.

The Nagpur central museum (estb. 1863) maintains collections are mainly for Vidarbha region.[29] The South Central Cultural Centre also actively sponsors various other cultural events in Nagpur city, such as the Orange City Craft Mela and Folk Dance Festival, which is noted for its numerous folk-dances.[30] A number of newspapers are published from Nagpur in Marathi, English and Hindi. The Hitavada is one of the oldest English daily newspaper published in central India. Nagpur is known for staying calm during communal conflicts in India.[31]

The Vidarbha Cricket Association Ground (VCA) in Nagpur is one of the nine test venues in the country. A new stadium of VCA called Vidarbha Cricket Association Stadium is built on Wardha road with a seating capacity of 45,000 people at cost of Rs. 75 crore (US$ 16.13 million).[32][33][34]. INOX Nagpur (area:45,000 square feet) is the first multiplex in city. The present day Maharajbagh zoo was originally a garden developed by the Bhonsle rulers.[35]. More recently, the Government of Maharashtra has approved a new safari park of international standards besides Gorewada Lake.

Deekshabhoomi, the largest hollow stupa and an important place of dalit buddhist movement, is located in Nagpur [36]. Sri Poddareshwar Ram Mandir and Shri Mahalaxmi Devi temple of Koradi are important Hindu temples[37]. Several important religious events are observed in the city throughout the year. Ram Navami is celebrated in Nagpur with shobha yatra which a massive procession of floats depicting various events from the Ramayana[38]. Processions are also held on important festivals of other religions such as Eid e Milad, Guru Nanak Jayanti, Mahavir Jayanti, Durga puja, Ganesh Puja and Moharram. Like the rest of India, Nagpurkars celebrate major Hindu festivals like Diwali, Holi and Dussera with fervour and enthusiasm. Celebrations lasting for several days are held on Ganesh Chaturthi and Durga Puja festivals in virtually every small locality in the city. The city also contains a sizable Muslim population, and famous places of worship for Muslims include the Jama Masjid-Mominpura and Bohri Jamatkhana-Itwari. In addition to annual religious festivals and processions, the Government of Maharashtra organizes a week long Kalidas Festival, a series of music and dance performances, by national level artist.[39]

Economy

Nagpur branch of Reserve Bank of India

Nagpur has been the main center of commerce in the Vidarbha region since early days and is an important trading location. However, Nagpur’s economic importance had gradually declined relative to Mumbai and Pune after the merging of Vidarbha into the Maharashtra because of a prolonged period of neglect by the state government[40]. During the slowdown, state and central government offices were a major source of employment in the city. Nagpur’s economy is now recovering from past slowdown[41] and city has attracted Rupees 5,000 crore in investment in 2004.[42]. The city is important for the banking sector as it hosts the regional office of Reserve Bank of India, which was opened on September 10, 1956[43]. Sitabuldi market in central Nagpur, known as the Heart of the city, is the main and major commercial market area of city.

The Butibori industrial area is the largest in all of Asia in terms of area.[44] The estate’s largest unit is of Indo Rama Synthetics, which manufactures synthetic polyester yarn. Other units in Butibori include the power transmission company KEC, Hyundai Unitech, ACC Nihon Castings Ltd.[45]. Koradi Thermal Power Station and Khaparkheda Thermal Power Station are the two major thermal power stationsNagpur and operated by MSPGCL. located near

Sitabuldi, the central commercial area of Nagpur

The Hingna industrial estate located on the western fringes of the city is made up of around 900 small and medium industrial units. The major ones among them are tractor manufacturing plant of Mahindra and Mahindra, casting units of NECO Ltd. (the country’s largest casting group),[46] units of International Combustions, Bajaj Auto group, Candico (the SECOND largest confectionery manufacturing plant in India [47]), Ajanta toothbrushes and Sanvijay Group (largest steel rolling group of companies for long products in Central India)[48]. Nagpur is home to ice-cream manufacturer Dinshaws, Indian dry food manufacturer Haldiram’s and Ayurvedic product company Vicco [49].

Multi-modal International Cargo Hub and Airport at Nagpur (MIHAN)

Currently, Nagpur is witnessing an economic boom as “Multi-modal International Cargo Hub and Airport at Nagpur (MIHAN)” is being developed. MIHAN will be used for handling heavy cargo coming from south east Asia and Middle east Asia. Project will also include Rs 10,000 crore (US$ 2.15 billion) Special Economic Zone (SEZ)[50] for Information Technology (IT) companies. Persistent SystemsNagpur. has one of the software development centers at

Education

Nagpur is a major education centre in Central India[51]. The city has both “municipal schools” (run by the NMC) as well as private schools (run by trusts or individuals), which in some cases receive financial aid from the government. The city’s school system follows a 10+2+3/4 plan, after which students have the option to enroll in Junior college and later degree courses. Founded in 1923, Nagpur University[52] is one of the oldest in the country[53] and has geographical jurisdiction over the five districts of Nagpur division in addition to giving affiliation to hundreds of colleges. Nagpur has three Medical colleges namely Government Medical College and Hospital (GMCH), Indira Gandhi Medical College (IGMC) and Lata Mangeshkar Medical College (LMC). Nagpur has several engineering colleges which provide education in various specialty courses. Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT) is one of the reputed technical institutes in the country and also an Institute of National Importance. Nagpur also has some good Management Colleges such as DBM Nagpur University and G.H Raisoni college. Nagpur is also known for some well known private engineering colleges namely Ramdeobaba Kamla Nehru College of Engineering (RKNEC)[54] which is frequently ranked among top engineering colleges in India in reputed magzines, Yeshwantrao Chauvhan College of Engineering(YCCE), and G.H. Raisoni College of Engineering. Finally, Nagpur has India’s only National Fire Service College that provides graduation course in Fire Engineering[55]. In addition to well known education institutions, the Raman Science Centre promotes scientific attitude and has 133 seat planetarium[56].

Transport

Main article: Transport in Nagpur

Railways Transport

Due to its central location in India, the Nagpur Railway Station is an important railway junction and a transit terminal for trains that connect the country lengthwise and breadthwise, especially trains connecting India’s major metropolises, Mumbai to Howrah-Kolkata, Delhi and Jammu to Chennai, Hydrabad, Bangalore and Kanyakumari in the South, as well as western cities such as Pune and Ahemedabad.[57] The city is the Divisional Head Quarters for the Central Railway and South East Central Railway Zone of Indian Railways.

Road Transport

Public transport bus in Nagpur

Nagpur is also a major junction for roadways as India’s two major national highways, Kanyakumari-Varanasi (NH 7) and Hajira-Kolkata (NH-6), passing through the city.[57] One more highway number 69 connect Nagpur to Obaidullaganj near Bhopal. Nagpur is at the junction of two Asian Highways namely AH43 Agra to Matara, Sri Lanka and AH46 connecting Kharagpur, India to Dhule, India. Auto rickshaws operate in most parts of Nagpur and are the main form of hired transport within the city.

The new national highway is being built between Nagpur and Mumbai, alternative to the existing NH 6. This new Nagpur-Aurangabad-Mumbai express highway is build on the national highway basis, though being the state highway, entirely inside the state of Maharashtra. This highway will be a major boost to the under developed regions of Vidarbha

and Marathwada in Maharashtra state.

Nagpur’s Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport has the busiest Air traffic control room of India.

Nagpur Railway Station

The Nagpur railways constitute a very significant part of the transport and communication system in the important city of Nagpur in Maharashtra. Many people from the rest of the country and abroad, visit the city of Nagpur to spend a vacation or on a work-related tour. For these frequent visitors to the city of Nagpur, the railways of Nagpur, along with the airways and the roadways, are of immense importance.

Some important trains that are available at the Nagpur railway station are the Vishakapatnam Nizamudin Samta Express, the Banglore Nizamudin Rajdhani Express, the Mumbai Howrah Mail, the Bangalore Gorakpur Express and the Howrah Mumbai Mail.

The railways at Nagpur were established a long time back well before the independence of India, as Nagpur used to be an important city of India even in those days. The year 1867 marks the beginning of the Nagpur railways. In the year 1881, the city of Nagpur was linked up with another important city of India, that is, Kolkata, via the railways of the state of Chhattisgarh.

The railway station of Nagpur was previously housed towards the east of the place where the current station has been constructed. The present-day railway station of Nagpur was also put up in the pre-independence days. The year of its establishment is 1924.

The railways in Nagpur are important not only because the city is one of the tourist destinations of the country and the second capital of the significant state of Maharashtra, but also because of its prime location. The railway station of Nagpur has a central location in the entire country and hence is strategically very important not only in the state but in the entire subcontinent of India.[2]

Modernization

Move over model station, if all goes according to plan then Nagpur could well be developed into a world class station. The Indian Railways has identified 22 such stations in India which can be upgraded to international standard and Nagpur is one of those.

Making this announcement at a ‘meet the press’ programme at the divisional railway manager’s office on Tuesday, Sowmya Raghavan, general manager, Central Railway, said: “I’d see to it that the city gets the best of passenger amenities.” Raghvan, who was on her first official to city as general manager CR, asserted that central railway has even identified priority areas like security, safety and cleanliness. “We plan to install CCTVs and metal detectors on all sensitive stations in the entire zone. My commitment is that passengers should have a feel of the facilities when they enter the station. We’ll instil a sense of behaviour among the front-line staff too as to how to behave with the commuters,” said Raghvan.

The general manager, who inspected the 140-km stretch between Ballarshah and Nagpur, further said: “There’s great demand to start new trains but I’ve no powers to start those. I can only forward such proposals to the railway board — the one which we did to make triweekly Nagpur-Pune Express into a daily train. The decision is expected in this railway budget.”

Once again, hopes to develop Ajni railway station into a terminus has been dashed. Raghvan was non-committal on the issue but could only say that it would be developed as a coaching complex. “If you plan to increase trains from Nagpur in future, we would need a coaching complex to maintain these trains and Ajni would be developed on these lines. A Rs 8.9 crore proposal has already been sent to the board,” the top official asserted. “Ajni is hardly 2.8 km from Nagpur station and as such it can’t be developed as a second station after Nagpur,” she added.

When asked about her assessment of the division, she was all praise for the officials but also said that she asked them to overcome certain shortcomings too.[3]

Trains

Following are the trains which operates from the Nagpur Railway Station.[4] More passing trains from Nagpur, are available for Bhopal via. Itarsi Junction, Gwalior, Jabalpur via. Balaghat Junction, Delhi, Mumbai, Pune, Bangalore, Indore, Jaipur, Lucknow, Agra, Benaras, Rajkot, Surat and almost, all the destinations throughout the India. For the list of passing by trains from Nagpur, check the Indian Railways site: http://www.indianrail.gov.in/src_dest_trns.html

Train Number  ↓ Train Name  ↓ Destination Station  ↓
2159 NAGPUR JABALPUR SUPER EXPRESS Jabalpur Junction, ( Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh)
1454 PRERANA EXPRESS Ahmedabad
236B NAGPUR ITARSI PASSENGER Itarsi
2140 SEWAGRAM EXPRESS Dadar
2914 INDORE NAGPUR TRISHATABDI EXPRESS Indore
2924 NAGPUR INDORE (SUPER FAST) EXPRESS Indore
2930 INDORE SUPER FAST AC DELUX (Cancelled) Indore Junction via. BetulMultaiAmla Jn.Itarsi Jn.Bhopal Jn.Dewas Jn.
1440 (Cancelled and 8240 NAGPUR BILASPUR EXPRESS introduced) NAGPUR JABALPUR EXPRESS Jabalpur

Air Transport

Nagpur’s Air Traffic Control (ATC) is the busiest in India, with more than 300 international flights flying over the city every day in 2004. In October 2005, Nagpur’s erstwhile Sonegaon Airport was declared an international airport and was renamed Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport.[59] Country’s first ever international cargo hub, the Multi-modal International Cargo Hub and Airport at Nagpur (MIHAN) is planned on the outskirts of the city.

Big malls :

Futala lake

airpor


Nagpur Related Websites

www.nagpuruniversity.org
www.maharashtraweb.com
www.nagpurdarpan.com
www.nagpurairport.com
www.vnit.ac.in
imdnagpur.gov.in
www.nagpurguide.com
www.nagpurpolice.nic.in
www.imtnagpur.ac.in
passport.gov.in/
www.pridehotel.com
nagpurbirds.org
nfscnagpur.nic.in
www.rknec.edu
www.litnagpur.info
cenexcisenagpur.nic.in
sisinagpur.nic.in
sczccnagpur.nic.in
www.kits.edu
www.nagpurpulse.com
nagpur.justdial.com
www.nagpurlive.com
www.nagpur-university.com
www.nagpuruniversity.org
nagpurfirst.org
nagpur.quikr.com
www.enagpur.com
nfscnagpur.nic.in
www.nagpurvision.com
www.echonagpur.com